I did look at wikipedia's big list of issue trackers again to see if something wonderful has appeared. Sadly, no. I used FogBugz here at home until my server crashed. It turns out the version I've got doesn't work well with Vista, so I haven't gotten it going again. I've used (not administered) various other web-based bug trackers at my various jobs. Web-based is inherently sluggish and icky-interfaced and usually requires a Linux server and/or facility with setting up an ecosystem of database, scripting language, and web server that I don't possess. I keep hoping there will be some open-source tracker that just installs and works and doesn't require a bunch of steps. FogBugz came pretty close, although I think I still had to mess around with my IIS settings. And it is web-based. Sigh.
My life in scripting languages
Over the years I've worked on a variety of games, some of which shipped. Nearly all of them used at least two programming languages.
The first game I worked on was Blade Runner, a modestly successful point-and-click adventure game. The game was coded entirely in C/C++ except for a small amount of assembly language in the renderer. There were three engine programmers and five scripting programmers. The scripting language was C. We used Windows' DLL interface to dynamically load the code for each location in the game. The script DLL's interface to the game was well-defined, consisting of a header file full of functions to do things like play lines of dialog, play animations, and check or set game state flags.
Later, I worked on Loose Cannon, an ill-fated project that was begun by Digital Anvil for Microsoft, sold to Ubisoft and given to Sinister Games (where I was) to finish. After two or three years there it was canceled. I learned a lot from that project, and perhaps the most important lesson was:
The code may leak memory like a sieve (Loose Cannon), contain its own hacky implementation of vtables, or use Hungarian notation that drains a little bit of your soul every day you have to look at it. You may be filled with loathing for the code; it doesn't matter. All code is loathsome, in its own way. Learn to do mechanical modification of code; you'd be surprised what you can do step by step while preserving a working game.
But I digress. One of the restarts involved trying to write the game in Python, with the idea that we would reimplement functionality in optimized C++ as necessary. That effort didn't get terribly far beyond the point of driving a car over the landscape at two frames a second. I have heard tell of shipped games (the Pirates! remake, for one) that use Python as the top-level language, though, so it's not impossible.
After that I helped finish Psi-Ops, a sleeper hit third-person action game featuring your typical brawny, buzz-cut Caucasian super-soldier, albeit augmented in this case with psychic superpowers. (The big debate was whether to name him Jack or Nick.)
Psi-Ops used C/C++ as its primary language, as does practically every game, with Python for scripting. The C++/Python interface was modeled on Boost.Python. We could do gnarly things like deriving a Python class from a C++ class, then deriving a C++ class from the Python class. There were about a dozen programmers, and I think they were all bilingual with regards to the programming. There were a half dozen designers, but if my memory serves, they did not do much (if any) Python scripting.
Finally, I worked on Sly 3, which used (a variant of) Scheme as its scripting language. The use of Scheme dates back to Sly 1 or 2 so I can't say for certain why it was chosen, but my hunch is that it was a combination of:
- a programmer with an MIT degree and
- very little time
Why Have a Scripting Language?
Why would you use more than one language to write a game?
There are certainly some big negatives to overcome for it to be a net gain. You wind up writing and maintaining an interface layer between the two languages. The two languages will compete for control of memory and you will have to work out how they should share it. You also have to decide what each language is for: how to decide which language to use to implement any given piece of functionality. You have to train programmers in both languages and in the ways the game's concepts are represented in each. If one of the languages is home-grown, it probably has terrible or nonexistent editing, compiling, and debugging tools.
Despite all this, game programmers keep including scripting languages in their projects. Here are the reasons I can think of:
To a large degree, the productivity of your day can be measured by the number of edit/build/load/test cycles you are able to perform. If the build/load phase takes five minutes, say, then you've got a maximum of 96 cycles in an eight-hour workday. The link phase, in particular, can get rather long (i.e. minutes) for some of the C++ compilers that game developers have to work with. Programmers look for ways to bypass as much of the link and load phases as possible, and scripting languages are seen as a way to do this.
Another reason often cited is to devolve some of the programming duties onto less-expensive programmers (a.k.a. designers). Scripting languages are expected to be simpler to use (by having no pointers, say, or no explicit type annotation), and thus more suitable for use by inexperienced programmers.
Bolting on a scripting language may be a way to use a more productive programming language for the parts of the game where performance is less critical. Languages that support higher levels of abstraction allow you to do more with less typing. Languages with more advanced type systems can verify more properties of your program before it is run, reducing the number of edit/test cycles needed.
Finally, we can't discount that programmers love to complicate things. If we don't have enough problems to solve we will create them! Let's face it: C++ is not a sexy language. It just happens to be the current language of choice for console development. There are lots of other languages that are more popular or exciting and it's fun to use them.
It is very important when you are responsible for a scripting language in a game not to lose sight of the goals. For instance, a scripting language may reduce the build time, but in my experience we've ended up gaining back a lot of the build time as we strive to make the game more efficient. (There's a conflict between malleability and efficiency.) Scripting languages may be simpler; but if they lack good abstraction capabilities (and people who know how to use them) you can end up with copy/paste code monstrosities. In addition, the use of dynamic languages defers detection of the most common types of errors (typos and signature mismatches) to runtime, which means more edit/test cycles.
Over the years I haven't been able to help thinking that the approach we used on Blade Runner was perhaps one of the best. By using a mainstream language, we ensured that our scripters had an integrated development environment. The compiler gave good error messages, and if they had a problem we could easily debug it. By having a clear, simple interface to the game we ensured that compile times were fast. The DLL mechanism ensured that link times were fast, too. Having a single language meant that there weren't any interface issues regarding memory usage, or object representation, to worry about.
If you do end up using a scripting language, please don't roll your own! It may sound like fun, but you have only to look at Maya's Mel language to see the horrors this can inflict on people. Autodesk (the current owners of Maya) have grafted Python onto Maya so that people won't have to deal with their misbegotten scripting language any more than necessary.